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Data from these instruments is used to calculate the average temperatures of different layers of the Earth’s atmosphere.[44] [45] * The lowermost layer of the atmosphere, which is called the “lower troposphere,” ranges from ground level to about five miles (8 km) high.[46] [47] According to satellite data correlated and adjusted by the National Space Science and Technology Center at the University of Alabama Huntsville, the average temperature of the lower troposphere increased by 0.60ºF (0.33ºC) between the 1980s and 2000s, mostly from 1997 to 2010: * Sources of uncertainty in satellite-derived temperatures involve variations in satellite orbits, variations in measuring instruments, and variations in the calculations used to translate raw data into temperatures.[51] [52] * According to temperature measurements taken near the Earth’s surface that are correlated and adjusted by NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, the Earth’s average temperature warmed by 1.5ºF (0.8ºC) between the 1880s and 2000s, mostly during 1907–19–2014: * According to temperature measurements taken near the Earth’s surface that are correlated and adjusted by the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia in the U.

* This graph is called the “hockey stick graph” because the curve looks like a hockey stick laid on its side (click on the footnote for a graphic illustration).[92] The red part of the curve represents modern instrument-measured surface temperatures, the blue represents proxy data, the black line is a smoothed average of the proxy data, and the gray represents the margin of error with 95% confidence.[93] [94] * This graph has been the subject of disputes in scientific journals,[100] [101] congressional hearings,[102] [103] and legal proceedings including a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit.[104] [105] Just Facts presently does not have the resources to conclusively assess all the competing claims on this issue, but the facts we have verified are as follows: medieval warmth,” and shows the following graph of temperature changes for the Northern Hemisphere over the past 1,300 years.

This graph, which is called a “spaghetti graph,” is constructed with data from 12 proxy studies spliced with instrument-measured surface temperatures (the dark black line): * The fifth IPCC report (2013) states that challenges persist in reconstructing temperatures before the time of the instrumental record “due to limitations of spatial sampling, uncertainties in individual proxy records and challenges associated with the statistical methods used to calibrate and integrate multi-proxy information.” This report contains the following spaghetti graphs of proxy studies spliced with instrument-measured surface temperatures (the black lines): * In 2009, an unknown individual(s) released more than 1,000 emails (many dealing with proxy studies) from the University of East Anglia’s Climatic Research Unit (CRU).

* The second IPCC report (1995) states that “data prior to 1400 are too sparse to allow the reliable estimation of global mean temperature” and shows a graph of proxy-derived temperatures for Earth’s Northern Hemisphere from 1400 onward with different details but a similar overall trend to the first report.[90] * The third IPCC report (2001) states that the latest proxy studies indicate “the conventional terms of ‘Little Ice Age’ and ‘Medieval Warm Period’ appear to have limited utility in describing …

global mean temperature changes in past centuries.” The report contains the following graph of average temperature changes in Earth’s Northern Hemisphere, showing higher temperatures at present than at any time in the past 1,000 years.

As of July 2015, no similar study has been conducted on a global basis.[81] * From 1979–2014, the three temperate datasets posted above differed from one another by an annual average of 0.13ºF (0.07ºC).

The largest gap between any of the datasets in any year was 0.38ºF (0.21ºC), and the smallest gap was 0ºF/C: * To reconstruct global average temperatures in the era before instrumental measurements were made on a global scale, scientists use proxies that respond to changes in climate, such as the widths of tree rings and certain elements of the geological record, to estimate temperature variations in the past.[83] [84] * The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific body established in 1988 by the United Nations and World Meteorological Organization.

The paper found that 92% of these stations are positioned in sites that can cause errors of 1.8ºF (1ºC) or more.[79] [80] For example, some stations are located over asphalt (making them hotter at certain times), and others are located in partial shade (making them cooler at certain times).

By comparing data from poorly positioned stations with other stations that are properly positioned, the study determined that the temperature irregularities in the poorly positioned stations cancel one another so that their average temperature trends are “statistically indistinguishable” from the properly positioned stations.

as “an increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere,” either by “human industry and agriculture” or by natural causes like the Earth has “experienced numerous” times “through its history.”[1] * Some writers use the phrases “global warming” and “climate change” to mean temperature changes strictly caused by human activity.[2] [3] [4] Other writers use adjectives such as “man-made” and “anthropogenic” to distinguish between human and non-human causes.[5] [6] (“Anthropogenic” means “of human origin,”[7] and “AGW” stands for “anthropogenic global warming.”[8]) * Just Facts’ Standards of Credibility require the use of “language that is precise and unambiguous.” Hence, when human causes are stated or implied, this research uses terms like “man-made” and “human-induced.” * The greenhouse effect is a warming effect caused by certain gases that retain heat from sunlight.[9] Without such gases, the average surface temperature of the Earth would be below freezing, and as explained by the , “life, as we know it, would not exist.”[10] The global warming debate is centered upon whether added greenhouse gases released by human activity will overheat the Earth and cause harmful effects.[11] * Human activities currently release about 37 billion metric tons of CO2 per year, which equates to about 5% of natural CO2 emissions.

Natural processes absorb the equivalent of all natural emissions plus about 57% of man-made emissions, leaving an additional 16 billion metric tons of CO2 in the atmosphere each year.[36] † In permafrost regions, perennial snow accumulations trap air bubbles that leave records of past airborne CO2 concentrations,[38] [39] [40] and because regional CO2 concentrations vary by less than 10 parts per million over the Earth, these local records are globally representative.[41] [42] * Instruments located on satellites can measure certain properties of oxygen that vary with temperature.

For example, between 19, sea level rose by about 6 inches in the tropical Western Pacific while falling by about the same amount in San Francisco.[238] * The average global sea level has been generally rising since 1860 or earlier, which is about 45 years before surface temperatures began to rise and 75 years before man-made emissions of CO2 reached 1% of natural emissions.[239] [240] [241] * If the trend of the 20th century continues, the average worldwide sea level will rise by about 7 inches (18 cm) during the 21st century.

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