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This is done by chemical analyses in specially equipped laboratories with sophisticated instruments capable of very good accuracy and precision.
So, in general, few people quarrel with the resulting chemical analyses.
For decades, the biologists have boldly proclaimed that, whereas we cannot observe today one type of creature evolving into a totally different type of creature, “Time is the hero of the plot. No one even bothers to ask what assumptions drive the conclusions.
Examples are granites (formed by cooling under the ground) and basalts (formed by cooling of lava flows at the earth’s surface).
The next step is to measure the amounts of the parent and daughter isotopes in a sample of the rock unit.
It is the number of neutrons in their nuclei that varies, but too many neutrons make the nuclei unstable, as in carbon-14.
Some isotopes of some elements are radioactive; that is, they are unstable because their nuclei are too large.
The atoms in each chemical element may vary slightly in the numbers of neutrons within their nuclei.
These slightly different atoms of the same chemical element are called isotopes of that element.Note that the carbon-14 (or radiocarbon) method is not used to date rocks, because most rocks do not contain carbon.Unlike radiocarbon (Sm)—are not being formed today within the earth, as far as we know.To achieve stability, these atoms must make adjustments, particularly in their nuclei.In some cases, the isotopes eject particles, primarily neutrons and protons.However, it is the interpretation of these chemical analyses of the parent and daughter isotopes that raises potential problems with these radioactive dating methods.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating