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Crossdating is considered fundamental principle of dendrochronology – without the precision given by crossdating, the dating of tree rings would be nothing more than simple ring counting! Baillie said it best in his 1982 book (page 263): "A tree-ring sample either dates or it does not.

For example, one can date the construction of a building, such as a barn, pueblo, or log cabin, by matching the tree-ring patterns of wood taken from the buildings with tree-ring patterns from living trees. No amount of pressure will make a tree-ring pattern match if it does not." If you cannot confidently assign exact years (calendar or relative) to your tree-ring samples, then you cannot report any "possible" dates for that sample!

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Example: analyzing the effects of air pollution on tree growth by studying changes in ring widths over time.

The science that uses tree rings to date earth surface processes that created, altered, or shaped the landscape.

The process that removes undesirable long-term variations from a time series of measured tree-ring properties by dividing the actual measurements by those predicted from a statistically derived equation that relates tree growth over time to tree age.

Usually this process tries to remove the growth trends due to normal physiological aging processes and changes in the surrounding forest community.

I'm sure, over time, we may find that one or more principles below are not really needed or that new principles need to be introduced. This principle was most applied to reconstructions of past climate, assuming that the climate response seen in trees during modern times was the same as the climate response in trees during previous times.

Study after study has now shown this not to be the case.Over the past three years, I have been working on revising these principles and I've presented numerous talks across the U. Eventually, I settled on the principles below as being representative of those to which we actually should adhere and have been adhering.I've sought input from individuals on these revisions and to all of them I'm especially grateful. One glaring change is that you will no longer notice the inclusion of the Principle of Uniformitarianism (or Uniformity).In fact, the introduction of "divergence" into the dendro-lexicon in the late 1990s epitomized the changing response of trees to climate over time, first scrutinized in detail in the mid-1980s. Perhaps it actually "Paradoxically, in suggesting that this term now be dropped from use, we pay a most fitting tribute to its vital role in the history of geology." -- Stephen Jay Gould, 1965, "Is uniformitarianism necessary"?This principle states that matching patterns in ring widths or other ring characteristics (such as ring density patterns) among several tree-ring series allows the identification of the exact calendar (or relative) year in which each tree ring was formed.= word = the science of): The science that uses tree rings dated to their exact year of formation to analyze temporal and spatial patterns of processes in the physical and cultural sciences.

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